This month, we have Duxbury news, Billie’s research has made quite a splash in Duxbury, what’s new at Familysearch – 2.5 billion records and more added weekly, e-books, blogs, etc.
More on the pauper children of Reuben and Mary Chandler – paupers no more as they became successful businessmen. Two of them and a brother-in-law went into the ice business, which was a major part of the New England economy at the time. One brother, Malcolm, had a pond named after him and the other, Austin’s life was one of both fire and ice, as he was both a successful ice dealer and the foreman of the Brighton Volunteer Fire Dept. His family ended up living only doors away from the birthplace of jazz in Harlem. Also a story about how ice was harvested. These stories have pictures.
The 1940 US census and more!
Since the last issue of the Courier, our member, Billie, was requested to send four copies of her work on Joseph Chandler and Capt. John Chandler, Edmund, the immigrant’s son and great-grandson respectively, to the Massachusetts Historical Commission, Plymouth County Deeds and Records, the First Parrish Church, and the local Historical Commission in Duxbury. The request concluded with, and I quote exactly: “GREAT WORK!!!!!”
Her work has been critical in determining the deed for Duxbury’s Town Hall. To show the difficulty of Billie’s work, the deed for the Town Hall was signed in 1785, but not recorded until 1794. The delay in recording deeds illustrates one of the chief difficulties in tracing land belonging to the early Chandlers. As the land stayed within the family being either traded or bequeathed among family members, deeds may not have been recorded for decades until the land left the Chandler family. One of the Chandler deeds took 50 years to go into the public records because the property had been kept within the family.
If you go plan to travel to Duxbury this year you can see the deed for the town hall which will be displayed at Plymouth Deeds and Records for the town’s 375th anniversary.
Hopefully, as Billie’s book makes it through Duxbury officialdom, we will be a lot closer to obtaining a proper place for the plaque which would honor the early Chandlers.
If you wish to read about the creation of the historical districts in Duxbury (this was before Billie sent them her work on the Chandlers which will both add and correct the information that they had then) click on the link below. Of course we are rooting for a Chandler Historical District as the Chandlers, especially Joseph, owned the land which became the heart of the town.
Regarding the Alden Kindred mentioned previously in the last issue of the Courier, they found Billie’s work “very exciting.” They are still considering Billie’s conclusions based on the work she has done regarding Capt. John Chandler being the son of Edmund Chandler (Joseph>Edmund) and Elizabeth Alden
1940 US CENSUS
The big news is the release of the 1940 US census 1940census.archives.gov. There was so much excitement about the release of the 1940 census that there was a countdown to the big day which was April 2nd.
The big genealogical groups, Familysearch, Ancestry and others are working as a team to index the 1940 census, so it will be searchable by name. As of this writing 20 million names have already been indexed. The folks at Familysearch plan to have it completed by the end of the year, but at the rate that it is going it will probably be sooner.
The 1840 census forms are very similar to the 1930 forms, but also ask where people were living 5 years previously, more information about people’s economic status and jobs and women’s marital status. For many, it will show how the Depression caused people to move to look for work.
Even though it is not yet indexed, if you know where your family members lived in 1940, you can look them up that way now. Our member, Sharron, tipped me off to Dick Eastman’s blog which has more information. http://blog.eogn.com/.
You can look them up by address, nearest intersection or enumeration district right now if you have that information. If they lived in the same place, you can look up the enumeration district from the 1930 census.
However as the indexing is going so quickly you may want to wait, because even armed with the necessary information, you may not be successful in finding your family in the un-indexed files as some computer and genealogy savvy folks told me.
If you want to participate in indexing for either the 1940 census or for vital records, you can go to www.familysearch.org and sign up.
A FREE CENSUS GUIDE FOR ALL US CENSUSES FROM ANCESTRY
From Ancestry comes this great guide to the censuses offering all sorts of tips on how to use the information in them, what census years asked what questions, using the census information as a springboard for further research and more.
WHAT’S NEW AT FAMILYSEARCH.ORG.
Every time that I set out to write about the changes at www.familysearch.org, they would make more changes. These are great changes, too and they aren’t done yet. These changes should turbo charge your research as it has done with my Chandler research. For more information click: What’s New at FamilySearch?
With 2.5 billion records available free and more being added weekly, it is worth a look! Not like the old days when it took years before updating. If you visit the revamped site and are lost as how to use it, you can call them toll free at 866-406-1830 for help. You also can try these Familysearch sites for help and information.
- What’s New View/Print Guide (pdf)
- What’s New Interactive Guide (online)
- Popular FamilySearch Downloads
- The Learning Center
- A Helpful Video on New Search Features
As I wrote previously, there was the old Familysearch, the pilot, and the beta version all out there separately at the same time for a while. Now they have merged, you can still click on a link to the old site, but not for long as it is being phased out.
New computer technology has allowed the new site to be interactive. There are forums to post both questions and answers and to make suggestions for improvement, a blog, and just starting to be phased in is the ability to make corrections and additions to the Ancestral Files (personal family trees). This feature is available to those who contributed that file and I think only church members at present. They still haven’t worked out the dilemma of how to handle it when other people find errors or think they have found errors in someone else’s Ancestral File.
Transcription errors can still hinder research and you may have to work at finding your ancestor in the censuses, for example, by finding them by searching for their spouses or children’s names which have been transcribed correctly. If you find a transcription error in a census for example, e-mail them so they can correct it.
The old clunky version only allowed you to search in a very limited way. The new version allows you to search in all sorts of creative ways, by first name, by last name, residence, birth place, marriage place and by collections i.e. censuses, death records, birth records and more. There are also filters where you can further your research with sub-categories such as find all James Chandlers in the 1855 Massachusetts censuses who were born in Maine.
Regarding another great new e-book resource available from Familysearch, our member, Sharron sent us Dick Eastman’s genealogy blog (a great resource on what’s new in the genealogy world). Eastman’s Online Genealogy Newsletter . See below.
FAMILY HISTORY BOOKS AVAILABLE ON LINE
Family History Books is a collection of more than 40,000 digitized genealogy and family history publications from the archives of some of the most important family history libraries in the world. The collection includes family histories, county and local histories, genealogy magazines and how-to books, gazetteers, and medieval histories and pedigrees. The valuable resources included in Family History Books come from the following partner institutions:
- Allen County Public Library
- Brigham Young University Harold B. Lee Library
- Brigham Young University Hawaii Joseph F. Smith Library
- Church History Library
- Family History Library
- Houston Public Library – Clayton Library Center for Genealogical Research
- Mid-Continent Public Library – Midwest Genealogy Center
Search More Than 40,000 Digitized Genealogy and Family History Books
You can search through more than 40,000 digitized genealogy and family history books from the archives of seven important family history libraries in the United States. Best of all, it is available right now and all of it is free of charge. Every word in every book is searchable. No, this isn’t on Google Books. It is FamilySearch.org, the same web site that hosts the huge databases online at the same site: FamilySearch.org.
You can perform a search at http://books.familysearch.org or click on the links to the individual libraries themselves. They are Allen County (Indiana) Public Library, Brigham Young University Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University Hawaii Joseph F. Smith Library, Church History Library, Family History Library, Houston Public Library’s Clayton Library Center for Genealogical Research, and the Mid-Continent Public Library’s Midwest Genealogy Center.
The materials in the collections include family histories, county and local histories, genealogy magazines, how-to books, gazetteers, and medieval histories and pedigrees. Not all the books in all libraries have been digitized just yet. It is an on-going effort. If you don’t find what you want in a search today, come back in a few months and try again. The book you seek may have been added by that time.
You can search easily by entering a name in the search box. That operates in more or less the same manner as Google or most any other search engine. However, I’d suggest you first click on “Advanced Search” and then enter a more focused search in the form shown below.
Using the Advanced Search will usually result in “hits” that are closer to your exact area(s) of interest.
This has to be one of the greatest online sources available to genealogists today. I am surprised at how little publicity has been generated about this valuable resource.
Try it yourself at http://books.familysearch.org.
By Carol May
When you push your glass against the ice dispenser lever or open your freezer door for some ice cubes, did you ever think that ice was once considered a “crop” which was harvested during ice season? That there were worries of ice “famines”, that ice was graded, exported and even on occasion imported?
Ice, which we take for granted today, was once a vital business and a major part of the New England economy until refrigeration took over. When the country was still very rural, farmers would go out to the local pond, cut the ice and bring it back to their own small ice houses, or they would keep their food cold by building a small structure over a spring called a spring house, but when cities grew that became impossible.
Most city dwellers did not have root cellars, springhouses, or access to ponds to cut their own ice. Not only city households were dependent on the “ice man” to keep their food from spoiling but so were restaurants, butchers and food suppliers. Extra hot summers and warm winters caused city dwellers to worry about “ice famines.”
A block of ice would usually last about a week, but less if there was a heat wave. Ice businesses would hand out large cards with the company business name printed on it. Ice wagon drivers would stop and deliver ice when they saw an “ice needed” card from their company in a window. Occasionally, ice would be delivered that was not needed and rather than having to carry it down flights of stairs, the ice man would heave it out a window to the delight of children.
American ice from the northeast was shipped to the South, the Caribbean, and even to India and China. The “ice king”, Frederick Tudor of Boston, had then the crazy sounding idea of shipping ice to India where he created a demand which ultimately made him rich.
We only have a few references to “ice age” terms today. In Salinas, California, lettuce was once packed in ice filled railroad cars and sent east hence the name “iceberg” lettuce. The ice packed railroad cars may be gone, but the name persists. A few folks may even still refer to a refrigerator as an “ice box.”
The genteel way to is to say the ice business was highly competitive. A more accurate description would be cutthroat. A few years after the death of Austin Chandler, there was an “ice trust” in New York which was formed by New York ice businessmen who ruthlessly joined together to drive out any competition. Sabotage of rivals’ businesses was not uncommon.
Malcolm Chandler, in Brighton, Mass, was accused of burning down a rival’s ice house, but was acquitted. Ice houses were the firetraps of their day as they were filled with flammable material to keep the ice from melting, so one catching on fire was not that unusual.
The ice business was in many ways similar to farming. Just like farmers, the ice men waited on the weather, usually the dead of winter about January or February to harvest their “crop.” In Maine 15 inches thick was considered thick enough for harvesting. If it got too thick, 3 feet or more, it became too thick to handle economically. Even in the freezing weather in the coldest part of the year, men worked so hard that they could work up a sweat.
Ice that was harvested was referred to as “natural” ice. Manmade ice was called “artificial” ice. Ice had to be scraped by teams of horses pulling scrapers, sometimes repeatedly to keep the snow off as it was forming. This would get rid of any “rotten” or snowy ice. The best ice was dense and clear because it was the longest lasting. The crème de la crème of ice came from the Kennebec River of Maine, but fine ice was harvested throughout New England. Ponds like Chandler’s pond in Brighton, Massachusetts were created just to produce ice.
After the ice was scraped, the ice had to be scored by a man with a team of horses and then gone over with a horse drawn “ice plow” for deeper cuts. There was also a horse drawn ice plane to shave the ice down to the clear part. Ice was cut into cakes by men with saws and the cakes were floated down channels which had to be kept open even if it meant towing a block of ice back and forth all night to keep the channel from freezing. Then the cakes were hauled in sledges to the ice house or loaded onto barges.
In the early days of commercial ice harvesting horses were used to lift the ice into the ice house. Later on continuous chain elevators (did Elisha Otis, Lucy Chandler’s grandson have a hand in this invention as he was the inventor of the modern day elevator?) carried the ice into the huge cavernous ice houses. There they were packed in sawdust, tanbark, hay, or salt grass. Salt grass was popular because it wouldn’t rot. A properly packed ice house could store ice for up to two or three years. These immense ice houses themselves were painted a bright white to reflect the heat.
Ice men also had to find ponds and rivers that were clean which became increasingly difficult as the population grew. A lack of clean water was one of the reasons for the decline of the ice industry.
It was affordable refrigeration that finally sealed the doom of the ice business. Someone pointed out that the ice dealers were actually in the business of keeping things cold not the ice business which they failed to realize. Probably a few of the smart and flexible ones switched to renting and selling refrigerators.
Home Page of ICE, Harvesting & History Including a story by Charles Kuralt about folks who still go out and harvest ice the old way in modern times. This is a great site created by someone whose hobby is studying the “ice age”. There is even a link to an old government booklet that tells dairy farmers how much ice they need to cool cream.
Lots of pictures of ice harvesting and a good description of the process
Little India – The Great American Cold Rush A very entertaining story how an American, Bostonian, Frederic Tudor, got the then very crazy idea of exporting ice to India much to the shocked an disbelieving populace — a joke, right? – was the response. He created a demand and made a fortune.
Frederic Tudor – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The story of the “ice king” of New England and how he exported ice all over the world. He was the biggest supplier to Calcutta, India.
Recollecting Nemasket: The Ice Industry Ice harvesting in Middleboro, Massachusetts
The Monday Evening Club: On ice: a business that has melted away A nice narrative of the ice business from its origins to when it “melted away.”
NO FEAR OF AN ICE FAMINE – A SUPPLY IN STORE SUFFICIENT FOR THE SEASON. – View Article – NYTimes.com A newspaper article about one of the big concerns of the time, running out of ice.
CAPTAIN JOHN CHANDLER FOUNDER OF CHANDLERSVILLE, OHIO.
by Barb Chandler
The headline of an article on page 22 of the Zanesville Signal, October 21, 1945 gives Captain John’s bio in a few words: CHANDLERSVILLE ONCE FURNISHED SALT for OHIO’S EARLY PIONEERS: Revolutionary Officer Settles Near Town Named for Him.
In 1797 Captain John Chandler and family joined a group lead by General Rufus Putnam of the Ohio Company and headed West toOhio.
They planted a settlement at Balpre, now known as Newbury township in Washington county Ohio. Not long after arriving was infighting, some decided they wanted to move on and others wanted to stay.Chandlerwas opted to stay and explore the area. After a couple years, he decided to move his family to the White Eyes valley a branch of Salt creek.
He and his family landed in the White Eyes valley (one half mile below Chandlersville) in the spring of 1799. Immediately, he and his sons set to work clearing the land. They built a cabin, shed for their livestock, prepared the land for cultivation, and started a garden that grew into a productive farm.
Chandler negotiated with the owners of the Marietta Company, who manufactured salt, for the sale and transfer of the Salt Works. He became owner, and the company was known as “Chandler’s Salt Works.”Chandler and his sons conducted the business of salt manufacturing for six or seven years after they got possession of the works.
When Chandler acquired the salt works there were only a handful of families. Over the year’s people settling in the Valley and calling it their home, the territory became known as SaltCreek Township. Chandlersville is located in western Salt Creek Township.
Captain John’s Genealogy:
Born 28, April, 1757Cornwall,Litchfield,Connecticut Died 12 May 1829 Chandlersville Muskingum Co OH
Fought in the Battle of Bennington during the American Revolution (Vermont Historical Gazette, Vol. II, P. 319)
Married Mary Royce Born 7 Dec 1758 died 7 Mar 1826 Chandlersville Muskingum Co OH.
Their children; Zachariah Royce b. 27 June, 1778 d. 29 August 1862, Polly, Martin b. inRutlandCo.VT 4 January 1782 d. Chandlersville 26 July 1845, Samuel b. 3 November, 1787 d. 18 January 1877 m. his first cousin Laurinda Bliss, John d. 29 August 1855, Guy d. 15 November 1868 aged 71 yrs 10 mo 114 days, and Steven R. will 31 May and 2 June 1864.
by Barb Chandler
Salt, a product that is so inexpensive and abundant we hardly give it a second thought, however to the early pioneers like gold. They had to have it to preserve and season their food and maintain the health of their livestock. Before there were local salt works, salt was brought to the settlements by pack horse from theAppalachian mountains. It was a very slow process and very costly.
Men from the Marietta Company discovered that Indians found salt licks, natural salt springs, on Salt Creek they asked them if they might have a portion of land and a trade was worked out.
The early pioneers dug deep holes or pits in the stream bed these pits would slowly fill with brine. They discovered if a hollowed out trunk of a tree was sunk into the pits it would prevent an inflow of surface water. The salt water was raised from this well to the kettles by means of a sweep and pole named for John Chandler. They boiled 500 gallons of water to get 50 pounds of salt.
Sources for both articles:
Biographical and Historical Memoirs ofMuskingum County,Ohio
Early Settlers: The Salt Boilers: http://www.jacksonohio.org/saltboilers.htm
GeoFacts: The Socioto Saline-Ohio’s Early Salt Indrustry http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Portals/10/pdf/GeoFacts/geof07.pdf
ELIHU CHANDLER, JR.
by Barb Chandler
Whenever I find out when an ancestor has died I immediately go to Find A Grave http://www.findagrave.com/ Sometimes I hit pay dirt, and find loads of information that furthers my research ie; the memorial telling where the grave is located, family members, a picture of headstone, picture of the person, even the obit.
I hit pay dirt several months ago. When I discovered the memorial of Elihu Chandler Jr. He was the son of Elihu E. and Jemima Chandler. Elihu Jr. was born May 27, 1838 and died June 3, 1843 he is buried in PleasantGroveCemetery, New London, Henry, IA. His memorial is at; http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GSln=chandler&GSfn=elihu&GSbyrel=all&GSdyrel=all&GSst=14&GScntry=4&GSob=n&GRid=65139060&df=all&
THE CHILDREN OF REUBEN CHANDLER
John, Malcom, Austin, Statira, Luther, Hewett, George, and Mary Elizabeth.
Lineage: Children>Reuben>*Jonathan>Judah>Joseph>Joseph>Edmund, the immigrant
Research by Carol May and Sharron Ross
Last issue, we featured Reuben and Mary (Parcher) Chandler who were declared paupers by the town of Poland, Maine and “bid off” which meant being auctioned to the lowest bidder for their care. The family absconded twice from the persons to which they were “bid off.” We don’t know why they absconded. It could have been pride, mistreatment or the belief that they could make it on their own, but immediately after absconding for the second time the family was split up.
From Shaker records we know that Hewett and his sister were sent to live with the Shakers. We don’t know where the rest of the family was living, possibly with the Shakers, but Reuben was alone in the US 1840 census for Poland, Maine and died in 1847. It appears that their mother, Mary, remained with the Shakers and died at the New Gloucester Colony in 1864.
It wasn’t until the 1850s with the exception of John, who was born March 12, 1824 according to Minot vital records, and who apparently died very young, that the children, now young adults, began appearing in the records again.
One by one, each of Reuben and Mary Chandler’s surviving children left Maine and migrated to Massachusetts where they began their climb out of poverty to success. The Industrial Revolution had begun in Massachusetts and young men and women from all over the New England states flocked to Massachusetts for jobs especially those with few prospects in their home states such as Reuben’s children or the orphan children of Hiram Chandler (see Summer 2010 Courier).
In those days the choices for those with no land or money was to migrate to Massachusetts for jobs or go west for land which, after a few years in Massachusetts, Luther did when he moved to Wisconsin.
Their Massachusetts migration was fortunate for us because Massachusetts kept excellent vital records in the 1800s which usually listed not only the birthplaces of the bride and groom, but also the names of their parents.
Between about 1850 and 1860, according to the censuses and vital records, siblings Malcolm, Austin, Statira, George and Mary Elizabeth were all living in or near Brighton, Massachusetts which later became part of Boston. Youngest siblings, George and Mary Elizabeth were the last to move there. Unfortunately, George died in 1860 in Boston at only age 25 of erypsilas, an infection that today can be cured with antibiotics.
Luther was living in Alfred, York, Maine according to the 1850 US census, but moved to Roxbury, Massachusetts by 1856 when he married and then moved to Wisconsin by the 1860 US census. Roxbury, ironically hometown of the prolific William and Annis Chandler family, is also near Boston.
Last to arrive was Hewett, who after leaving the Shakers, moved to South Middleboro, Massachusetts where he became a nurseryman in the 1880s.
Next issue we will have a story about Hewett and the Shakers, Luther and Mary Elizabeth.
THE ICE MEN:
Malcolm, Austin and Statira’s husband, Nathan Tucker, went into the ice business, not as wandering ice peddlers selling ice out of a cart, but the ice business from harvesting, storing and delivering, with stables of horses, equipment, an ice house and employees. (See sidebar about the ice business)
It was very hard work, with the ever present worry of falling through the ice or being injured by cakes of ice. It was such hard work that workers could work up a sweat harvesting the ice on the coldest days of the New England winters.
The ice man of Chandler’s Pond, Brighton, Massachusetts.
Malcolm may have started as a pauper in Maine and then a laborer in Massachusetts, but he didn’t stay poor and he didn’t stay a laborer as he was hard working and ambitious.
He was born February 8, 1825 according to Minot, Maine vital records. We think it was he who appeared in the US 1830 New Gloucester, Maine census as a male over 5 years old.
In 1850 he was a laborer living in a Wareham, Massachusetts boarding house and by early 1855, he was still a laborer and still a boarder, but was now joined by his brother, Austin, in Brighton, Massachusetts. Austin later married the landlady.
However, later that year Malcolm was in business for himself as an ice dealer and could afford to marry and support a family. On November 15, 1855, Malcolm married Ellen L. Gilman, originally of Hallowell, Maine and daughter of Gideon and Lois Gilman. Malcolm was listed in the Massachusetts marriage records as being born in Minot, Maine the son of Reuben and Mary C. (other records say Mary P.) They married in Chelsea, Mass.
Malcolm had an ice cutting operation at Hammond pond in Newton, Mass and later developed what is now the affluent suburb, Waban.
In 1858 Malcolm bought the east side of what became known as Chandler Pond and the adjacent ice house from William C. Strong, a well-known horticulturist. Malcolm eventually owned all of the land around the pond with the exception of a small parcel owned by the city of Brighton. Brighton was annexed to Boston in 1874.
Malcolm prospered and was very well off by the standards of the day. By 1860, he had $10,000 in real estate and $3,750 in personal property which was a lot of money in those days. His household consisted of his wife, Ellen, daughter Lizzie, who was born about 1857, sister Mary Elizabeth, age 23, and six of who appear to be his ice business employees, and one servant.
Malcolm and Ellen L. (Gilman) Chandler had the following children:
Lizzie Chandler born about 1857
Lois W. Chandler born about 1860
Arthur Chandler born about 1864
Malcolm’s business continued to grow. By 1870 Malcolm’s real estate grew to be worth $14,000 while his personal property was valued at $1,000. He an built an imposing 4,379 Sq. ft. Greek revival house with a ell which then backed up to Chandler Pond on 70 Lake St. in Brighton. The house, which still stands, is estimated to be worth over $700,000 today according to Zillow. It was built in the Greek revival style, although its sheer size and white color reminds one a little bit of the ice houses where he made his money.
The ice house was at the other end of the pond along with the accoutrements of the business which included ice harvesting equipment, wagons, and a large stable of horses to do the work of harvesting and delivering ice.
Chandler Pond, along with over 20 ponds in the area, was created for the purpose of harvesting ice. It and a fragment of another pond are the only former ice ponds that still exist in the Brighton area today. It is s a shallow pond as it was created for the purpose of supplying ice and not as a reservoir. Today the pond is surrounded by large houses and is very close to Boston College. There is also St. John’s Catholic Seminary on the same street as Malcolm’s house. Now, many graduate students and academics live in the area.
The ice business became extremely competitive with a rival of Malcolm accusing him of burning down his ice house, a matter of which Malcolm was acquitted. Ice houses were filled with flammable insulation, so fires were not uncommon.
According to Massachusetts death records Malcolm died May 3, 1876 at his home on Lake St. in Boston. Brighton had become part of Boston two years previously. He died of indigestion which he had for 10 years and “Scirrhus Infl.” (cancer) which he had for 6 weeks according to the records. He was mistakenly listed as widowed. His wife, Ellen, died July 11, 1904.
A few years after his death, the family couldn’t pay the mortgage on the ice business and it was lost. His widow, Ellen and children, Lizzie, Lois and Arthur G., moved to Quincy, Mass. and were recorded there in the US 1880 census. When Ellen died she was buried in the Evergreen Cemetery in Boston.
Daughter Lizzie married Frank H. Russell on April 20, 1884 in Boston, Mass. They had no children. She died Sept. 7, 1908, a widow.
Daughter Lois married Moses A. Boynton. They had one son, Clark Gilman Boynton. He eventually moved to Pennsylvania where he was the manager of a service bureau.
The surprising thing about Clark and his wife is that unlike most people of the day who spent their lives not straying far from their hometowns, Clark and his wife were adventurous enough to take a trip to the Philippines on the ship “Empress of Japan” in 1936. This was a renowned ship on which both Will Rogers and Babe Ruth sailed. We don’t know if they had children or not.
Son Arthur G. Chandler may have been the Arthur who was found in the 1900 New Jersey census with wife Lillie. It appears that they had no children.
SOURCES FOR MALCOLM CHANDLER
All Chandler Pond photos and maps courtesy of Brighton Allston Historical
Newton Conservators – Chandler Pond Very nice pictures of Chandler Pond today.
Minot, Maine vital records, born on February 8, 1825 to Reuben and Mary Chandler
1830 US New Gloucester, Maine Census. We think that it was he who appeared as a male over 5 years old but under 10
1850 US Massachusetts Watertown, Middlesex Census where he is listed as “Malcomb” Chandler, laborer age 26. He resided in the household of David Haynes, a farmer, in what looks like a boarding house.
1855 Massachusetts State Census for Brighton, Middlesex, Massachusetts. “Malcomb” and his brother, Austin, are roommates in the household of Clarrissa Magness and her three children,
Massachusetts Marriage Records, Chelsea, Mass, Malcolm, age 31, born in Minot, Maine, ice dealer from Brighton, Mass son of Reuben and Mary P. married Ellen L. Gilman, born in Hallowell, Maine, daughter of Gideon and Lois Gilman married on Nov. 5, 1855.
1860 US Census for Brighton, Middlesex, Mass. Malcolm, age 35 born in Maine, Ellen, Lizzie and Mary E. Chandler, age 23 born in Maine (his sister), listed along with 7 others including ice dealers, drivers and a servant, all probably Malcolm’s employees.
1865 Massachusetts State Census, Brighton, Middlesex. Malcolm age 40 born in Maine, wife Lois E. age 38, Lizzie age 8, Lois W. age 5, Arthur Chandler age 1. Along with four others possibly boarders/and or workers.
1870 US Census for Brighton, Middlesex, Massachusetts, Albert Chandler, age 46, born Maine. Ella L. age 44, Lizzie age 14m Lois W. age 10, Arthur age 7. Also 4 laborers and servants.
Massachusetts Deaths, 1841-1915 Malcolm C Died Lake St. on May 3, 1876 in Boston, Suffolk, Mass. (formerly Brighton), ice dealer. Listed as a widower (mistake) born Minot, Maine. Parents Reuben and Mary.
Ice dealer, Volunteer Fire Department Foreman
It appears that Austin started out in the world with his name misspelled as “Ansson” or “Sisson” in the Maine vital records. He was born October 29, 1826. He appears in the US 1830 New Gloucester, Maine census as a son of under five years of age. We don’t find Austin again until the US 1850 census for Charleston, Middlesex, Massachusetts living in the household of Samuel Adams. He was listed as age 24, born in Maine and a laborer, but he like his siblings worked hard and became successful.
By the 1855 Massachusetts state both he and his older brother, Malcom, were living in Brighton, Middlesex, Mass in the household of the widow Clarissa Magness age 30. Clarissa had three children, Abbie L. age 11, Anna L. age 9 and Charles age 5 all born in Massachusetts.
Austin married his landlady Clarissa (Hutchings) Magness in Brighton on January 5, 1858. Austin was also no longer a laborer but was listed as an ice dealer whose birthplace was Poland, Maine. He adopted the children, whether formally or informally we don’t know, but in all later records the children’s surname was Chandler.
The Brighton Volunteer Fire Department in 1865 with its hose cart and pumper.
Austin was an active member of the Brighton community where, according to the Boston Herald dated May 5, 1858, he was elected the foreman of the Butcher Boy Engine Company of Brighton. The foreman wielded a “speaking trumpet” where he could issue orders to the men on how to fight the fire. The fire company had dozens of members because in the early days they didn’t have steam pumpers and water had to be pumped by hand or passed hand to hand in buckets. The name Butcher Boy Engine Company probably came from the local slaughter houses.
Benjamin Franklin organized the first volunteer fire department in Philadelphia and he considered belonging to the fire department part of ones manly duty. Originally volunteer fire departments were made of gentlemen, including famous Americans George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, John Hancock, Paul Revere and others, but were later comprised of working men. These men also saw it as part of their manly duty, valued the brotherhood, and took great pride in their volunteer fire departments. The local businessmen were not quite as pleased with them as the community at large because when there was a fire their employees who were volunteer firemen would race out the door to the fire. Of course, it was a different story if it was their business that was on fire.
In the early days, volunteer fire departments were highly competitive with each other and would race to fires to see who got there first because in some cases that meant getting paid. Claiming “first water”, which was the fire department that put water on the fire first, was a big deal. Fire dogs would clear the way for the horses and guard the equipment sometimes even from rival fire departments. Eventually that extreme amount of rivalry gave way as it was counter-productive.
But that spirit of being the best remained and rivalry took other forms. For parades equipment would be shined and the members would march with pride dressed in colorful uniforms. Lavishly decorated helmets, fancy axes, hand-painted stove top “fire hats” and fire buckets would be commissioned for parades. Respected local artists would be commissioned to paint scenes on the pumper wagons. There were even engraved silver speaking trumpets which could be used to shout insults at rivals.
Austin was in New York by 1868, because he went into partnership with George S. Goble. They were proprietors of an ice pond and ice house on Cromwell’s Creek. This was probably at the southern end of the Bronx near the boundary of Manhattan. Cromwell’s Creek led into the pond. Cromwell’s Creek is now Jerome Ave. If they were on the southern end of the creek, it would have been very near where Yankee Stadium was built years later.
By 1870 US census, Austin had moved his family and ice business to Manhattan (Harlem). His step-son Charles went into the ice business and even it appears that his nephew, Charles Tucker, worked in Austin’s ice business for a time.
Harlem was originally a Dutch village, then the site of Revolutionary War battles and then was an area of elegant estates owned by such as notables Alexander Hamilton and James Roosevelt amongst others. After that Harlem’s economy was boom and bust.
Austin arrived there during a period when the large estates such as Hamilton Grange, the old Alexander Hamilton estate were being auctioned off. The land was depleted for farming and Irish squatters began moving in. Harlem’s fortunes brightened when the elevated public transportation (ell) was extended there and Harlem was incorporated into New York City. This caused a building boom which went bust by the mid-1890s which brought another wave of immigrants and went bust again in 1904. After 1904 Harlem was the scene of the Great Migration of African Americans who moved there from the South and the Caribbean. Art, music, theatre and literature poured out of Harlem during this period known as the “Harlem Renaissance.”
Charles Chandler was involved in an ice business on Silver Lake in Staten Island.
From the New York World: Charles A. Chandler, of the Silver Lake Ice Company No. 17 West 133rd Street made a subscription of $1000. “The Ice Men,” he remarked, “will certainly be benefited by the World’s Fair and should subscribe liberally.” New York was in competition with Chicago to host the 1890 World’s Fair and unfortunately for New York, Chicago won.
Austin died on October 10, 1894 and Charles died on January 11, 1896, but Austin’s wife and step-daughter continued to live there until at least 1905 just as Harlem was changing again. They still lived on West 133rd St., which became the birthplace of jazz and in a few years was nicknamed Swing Street. Billie Holliday, Duke Ellington and others sang and played in the speak-easies and clubs on West 133rd Street during Prohibition. In those days, jazz was not considered proper music and worse yet was played in speak-easies that served illegal bath tub gin which were periodically raided by the police.
Austin’s family was witness to it all from the decline of the great estates, the booms, busts, and finally the birth of the jazz age. We don’t know how long they lived there after the 1905 New York census, but imagine what a culture shock it must have been coming from New England, birthplace of the Temperance Movement, blue laws and bastion of religion.
SOURCES for AUSTIN CHANDLER
Minot Vital Records: Birth October 26, 1826. Parents: Reuben and Mary Chandler. His name was misspelled as “Anssson” or “Sisson.”
1830 US Census for New Gloucester, Maine: It appears that he was the son listed as age five and under.
1850 US Census for Charleston, Middlesex, Massachusetts: Enumerated in the household of Samuel Adams. He was listed as age 24, born in Maine and a laborer.
1855 Massachusetts State Census: Both Austin and his older brother, Malcom, were enumerated in Brighton, Middlesex, Mass in the household of the widow Clarissa Magness, age 30, who was born in Maine. Clarissa had three children listed, Abbie L. Magness, age 11; Anna L.Magness, age 9; and Charles Magness, age 5 all born in Massachusetts.
Massachusetts Marriage Records: Austin married Clarissa (Hutchings) Magness, born in Boothbay, Maine daughter of Frederic and Abby Hutichins, age 37. They married in Brighton on January 5, 1858. Austin was listed as an ice dealer born in Poland, Maine,age 32 son of Reuben and Mary. His first marriage and her second.
1860 US Census for the 9th Ward of Boston, Mass. Enumerated were Austin Chandler, 33; Clara H.
Chandler age 37; Abbie L. Chandler age 15; Anna W.? Chandler age 13, and Charles H. or A.? Chandler, age 10.
History in Asphalt: The Origen of Bronx Street and Place Names, Borough of the Bronx, New York City, by John McNamara. Page 105.
1870 US Census for 12 WD 15-ED New York: Austin, age 46; Clara H. age 34; Abby L. age 23; Charles A. age 17. Listed as living on 133rd St.
1880 US Census for 12- Ward New York: Austin age 50; Clara A. age 50; Charles A. age 29; Abbie L., age 30, Charles Tucker, age 29, married, laborer, and Charles Mason, age 29 laborer. West 133rd St. Number 17.
The New York World, Issue: Tuesday Nov 12 1889, Page 8, Col 1 Pledges for the guarantee for the New York World’s Fair.
New York Death Records from the Italian Genealogical Group NYC Death Records : Austin C. Chandler, age 67 died October 10, 1894 Certificate #342333 County Manhattan.
New York Death Records from the Italian Genealogical Group NYC Death Records : Charles A. Chandler, age 45 died January 11, 1896.
1900 US Census Manhattan, New York: Clara Chandler, age 80 born April 1820, widow married 36 years, born Maine. 5 children born, 2 living. Abby, daughter, single, age 47 born January 1852, Massachusetts. Mabel Chandler, age 52, niece born, Maine. (Mabel’s last name was probably not Chandler)
1905 New York State Census, Manhattan. Clara Chandler, age 85; Abbie L. Chandler, age 51. Residence 72 West 133rd St. (mistakenly listed as the daughter of who was probably either their landlord or a fellow tenant in the building)
Boston Herald, Issue: 5 May 1858, Page 4, News Item
FIREMEN’S ELECTION IN BRIGHTON
The annual meeting of Butcher Boy Engine Company No. 1 of Brighton, was held Tuesday evening when the following officers were elected.– Foreman; Austin Chandler, Second Foreman; Joseph Caldwell, Third Foreman; J. Q. Hollis, Clerk; Charles H. Champiney.
An ice dealer’s wife
She was born about 1828 in New Gloucester or Poland, Maine according to Massachusetts vital records.
According to the US 1830 New Gloucester, Maine census there was a female under 5 years old living in the Reuben Chandler household who matches Statira. According to Shaker records, he also lived with them as did her brother, Hewett, and was considered by them as a sister.
We don’t know if she was the first of Reuben and Mary Chandler’s children to migrate to Massachusetts but she was the first one to show up in Massachusetts records after she left the Shaker Colony in Maine when she married Nathan Tucker in Cambridge, Middlesex, Mass. on May 12, 1850.
Because her name was so unusual it was misspelled and incorrectly transcribed many ways — “Slatira”, “Statisa”, “Statia” and even “Haden”—she was difficult to trace. It was easier to find her by following her husband’s or her children’s names who were:
Charles N. Tucker who was born in 1851 died after the 1880 census where he was enumerated in the household of his uncle, Austin Chandler.
George Albert Tucker, (twin) born in Watertown, Middlesex, born March 14, 1853 Mass. George Albert died of pneumonia August 31, 1876 in Cambridge, Middlesex Mass.
Mary Alice Tucker (twin) born in Watertown, Middlesex, Mass. (twin) born March 14, 1853 in Watertown, Middlesex, Mass., Mary Alice died December 14, 1870 of Bright’s disease in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
By 1855, Nathan, Statira and children moved to nearby Brighton, Mass. where Malcolm, Austin and George were also living. By 1860, Nathan was doing well as a farmer and they had two servants. Ironically, as Statira was once a pauper herself, she and her husband had taken in two paupers one of whom was insane.
By 1865, Nathan had left farming behind and was an ice dealer like his brothers-in-law. In addition to his family, two ice dealers also resided in his house. We don’t know if they were employees or boarders.
By the 1870 census for the Watertown area of Brighton, Nathan had now retired as an ice dealer, but the family was still involved in the ice business because his son, George Albert was now working as an ice dealer.
The 1875 New York census shows the family living Dunkirk, Chautauqua County, New York. Dunkirk was a major port city on Lake Erie on the far western end of New York State. Daughter Mary Alice Tucker remained in Massachusetts because she married Joseph James on Dec 14, 1870 in Cambridge, Mass.
Statira’s husband may have died in New York as he is no longer found in the censuses. After a period of good fortune, Statira faced difficult times ahead as a widow. The family moved back to Cambridge, Massachusetts where her son George Albert died in 1876.
The one bright spot was that Statira was now a grandmother as her daughter, Mary Alice (Tucker) James, had sons Charles Nathan, born in 1873, and Albert Franklin, born in 1876, according to Massachusetts records.
After Mary Alice died in 1879 of Bright’s disease, the boys, along with several other children, lived with Oliver and Betsey Tucker in New Hampshire who were probably relatives of Statira’s husband. Statira, a widow, probably did not have the means or the time to take care of young children. It appears that their father, Joseph James, remarried and lived in Cambridge. No more records could be found for Albert Franklin James. Charles James, now 37 and single, appeared in US 1910 census for Cambridge, Mass in most likely a boarding house.
Statira’s son Charles Tucker moved to New York City and was enumerated in the 1880 census in his Uncle Austin Chandler’s home. It is still unknown if this Charles was the Charles H. Tucker who married Ella Cook and had a daughter named Gladys.
Statira, a widow with at least two of her three children deceased (we aren’t sure of the status of Charles) finally appears again only this time it is in the Massachusetts death records. She died on February 25, 1897 in Wareham, Massachusetts. Her residences were listed as South Middleboro, Wareham, and Brighton. South Middleboro is the same town where her brother, Hewett and his family were living and it is likely she was living with or near them. She was buried in Brighton, Mass.
The mystery about her death record is that she is described as single rather than a widow and only her maiden name, Chandler, was listed. There was also a probate listed for Statira Chandler, not Statira Tucker which would have been her married name. Another mystery.
SOURCES FOR STATIRA CHANDLER
1830 US census for New Gloucester, Maine. We think it was she who was listed as a female under 5 years of age in the household of Reuben Chandler
Massachusetts Marriage Records. May 12, 1850 Statira M. Chandler, resident of Cambridge, Mass, born in New Gloucester, Maine married Nathan Tucker, drayman, born in Grafton, New Hampshire and resident of Boston
1850 US Census, Boston, Nathan, 22; “Statisa”, 22, born Maine
1855 Massachusetts State Census, Brighton, Nathan, 27; Statira, 27; Charles N. 4; George A., 4; Mary A. 4, Matilda A Glinigen, age 21.
1860 US Census Residence, Brighton. Nathan, farmer, 33; “Statia”, 32; Charles, 9; Albert, 7; “Allise”, 7. Also, two servants, one pauper and one insane person.
1865 Massachusetts, Brighton. Nathan, 37, ice dealer; Statira, 37; Charles N. Tucker, 14; George A. Tucker, 12; Mary A. Tucker, 12. There were also two other ice dealers living in his household.
1870 US Watertown area of Brighton, Middlesex, Mass. Nathan, 42,retired ice dealer; “Haden”, 41; Albert, 17, ice dealer; Charles, 19, unemployed, Mary 17, at home.
1975 New York State Census, Dunkirk, Chautauqua, New York. Enumerated were Nathan, age 47; Statira, age 47, Charles, age 24; Albert, age 22.
Massachusetts Death Records Statira Chandler, age 69 years died of heart disease in Middleboro/ Wareham, Mass. on February 25, 1897. Residences were given as Wareham, South Middleboro and Brighton, Mass. Buried in Brighton. It is interesting that she was listed as Statira Chandler, single, and not Statira Tucker, widow.
If you have any stories about your ancestors, pictures, or articles about a Chandler please send them to Barb or Carol so we can include them in the fall issue of the Courier.