Carol May


The biggest news this issue is finding a match between the Edmund Chandler project Y-DNA testees and an Australian with Northern Irish roots.


Our old site, www.edmundchandler.com  is no more. A reminder that our new site can be found at: Chandler Family Association – Genetic Chandler Family #13 – Descendants of Edmund Chandler
born England 1588

There were technical difficulties in getting the files out of the old site, but none have been lost.

Thank you James Campbell, our webmaster, for managing the ECFA web site for 11 years while raising a family, working at a full-time job, and doing missionary work in remote places of the world.

Lastly, our long-time editor, Barb, is retiring for health reasons. Thank you, Barb, for your work as editor. In addition to doing some of the writing, she posted the Courier and found many illustrations for it.

Our founder, James, is helping out by posting the Courier. He of many computer skills and me of so few!

I did have several stories on the Civil War and more on DNA, but have put them off until a future issue to bring you this breaking news.



We have been hoping for an Edmund Chandler DNA match outside of the US, but we thought it would be in England as that is where we, we meaning mostly CFA member Dick our English CFA members, have been looking.  However, the Chandler Y-DNA project is worldwide, with over 500 participants, so our match came from an Australian with Northern Irish roots!

Adding to the mystery is that this new match is not surnamed Chandler but Hale.

Angela Hale, our newest member, is an enthusiastic genealogist who asked her Dad to take the Y-DNA test.   She hoped that he would match a Hale as that is his surname. To her surprise and ours, her father was a 66/67 match with one of our Edmund Chandler testees and a 64/67 match with the remainder of our testees. That’s a very close match and the difference is negligible between the testees.

Thanks to members Angela and Dr. Bob, the tests were upgraded to 111 markers and the match held up with 107 out of 111 markers matching. That’s really close, close enough to warrant a cigar.

In addition to upgrading their Y-DNA marker tests to 111 markers, both Dr. Bob and Angela’s father also tested positive for the U-198 marker (see the U-198 story below).


Her research shows that her 5th great grandfather was William Hale, of Ballymore, Armagh County, which is now in Northern Ireland. His son, Thomas Hale, her 4th great grandfather, married in Tandragee Armagh County and then the couple immigrated to Australia from Ballymore in 1855 on the ship “Glorianna.”

Questions immediately arose.  If he was a Hale why did his descendant match the Edmund Chandler descendants?  At this point it seems geographically impossible or at least very improbable that Thomas Hale descended from Edmund as no Edmund descendants returned to the British Isles that we know about.

If not a descendant of Edmund, that could push the common ancestor of both William Hale and Edmund Chandler back even farther, before the common use of surnames.  That’s 400 plus years ago. That could explain why he was a Hale and Edmund was a Chandler. It is also possible Hales were once Chandlers or vice versa.

Hale is a habitational name of Old English origin meaning hollow or nook. Chandler, as we all know, is an occupational name, originally candle maker.

Was there unofficial adoption somewhere along the line?  Adoptions up until more modern times were usually unofficial. Family members or family friends died and the child was taken in and often given the surname of the adopting family. That’s another way a Chandler could have become a Hale or vice versa.

The Hales were probably not Irish as William Hale was Presbyterian and not Catholic. Hale is a popular name in England and southern Wales.  However, Presbyterians were mostly Scottish. So there is a possibility that William Hale was of Scots origin rather than English.  So

During the reign of King James (1566-1625), Scottish Presbyterians were sent to colonize Northern Ireland driving the Irish chieftains and their followers into the hills and marginal lands. This was the King’s way of taking care of, to him, those troublesome Irish. Those Scots later became known as the Scots-Irish. They were mainly Presbyterian Lowland Scots who moved to Ireland and mainly Church of England Englishmen who also moved to Northern Ireland. More Scots moved to Northern Ireland over time, many more Scots than Englishmen.

It is interesting to note that neither William Hale nor Edmund Chandler were Church of England as Edmund was a Separatist although he was born over 200 years before William Hale, the Presbyterian.

It is also possible that William Hale’s family were more recent immigrants to Northern Ireland as people did move there for work over the ages.

In Australia, Angela also found another descendant of Thomas Hale, the 1855 immigrant from Northern Ireland, to agree to Y- DNA testing.

Here is Angela’s story in brief.

She got as far back as her 5th great- grandfather, William Hale who married Euphemia (Austin?) with her research. They had Thomas Hale (c.1833-1919) who married Jessie Emerson in Tandragee, County Armagh, in now Northern Ireland. The couple migrated from Ballymore, County Armagh to Australia on the ship “Glorianna” in 1855.  The immigration papers indicated that they had no relatives living in Australia at the time they arrived.

From then on they were all Australians.  Their son named William Hale (1858-1926) married Elizabeth Colquhoun. They had Albert Stanley Hale (1892-1965) who married Alice Aldrich who had Ronald Ian Hale (1915-1951) who married Florence Monkley who had Angela’s father, Roger.

If the new testee from Australia also matches our Edmund group, we can research Northern Ireland further, if not, well genealogy is all about solving mysteries.

Plantation of Ulster – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  More about the colonization of Northern Ireland by command of King James I.

James VI and I – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  The King of Scotland and England.



As for the origins of our Edmund Chandler, we all know that he was documented as being in Leiden, Holland with the Separatists in the early 1600s.  Our member, Billie, did some further research that indicated that Roger Chandler was his brother and that they lived in Colchester, Essex, England.  Alas, the researchers, authors of books on Pilgrims, who she contacted, did not have the paperwork, just the memory of it!

We do know from Roger’s marriage record that he was listed as being “of” Colchester.  Our fellow CFA members in England are also looking for Chandlers to Y-DNA test. Rochester is another area that is a possibility for Edmund’s origins.

Another question arises, if Edmund could have been “of” Colchester, were his family roots there or were they from elsewhere?



Our Chandler/Hale surprise is not the only DNA news that we have. Two of our members, one being Angela’s father and the other being Dr. Bob, have also joined the U-198 DNA project as they both tested positive for that marker.

Unlike the Y-DNA project that deals in genealogical time which covers the time of surname usage which began about 500 years ago for common people, the U-198 project focuses on deep ancestral research — think tribes and spears.  Their results are also applicable to the rest of the Edmund Chandler Y-DNA project testees.

Below is our member, Dick’s, explanation of haplogroup R1b that Edmund’s descendants belong to and the U-198 project.

Haplogroups are the main branches of the human evolutionary tree, consisting of groups of DNA patterns which are inherited from a common ancestor, and somewhere in their genes a specific genetic mutation unique to that haplogroup.  Edmund descendants belong to haplogroup R1b, the most common European haplogroup, carried by about 70% of English men.  Within that haplogroup, a small percentage (about 2% of that 70%) carry an additional mutation at one specific location – named U-198 – in their Y chromosome.  (The actual mutation is the nucleic acid adenine occurring at that location, where everyone else in R1b has the acid guanine at that location.) Any man, of any surname,  carrying that mutation can join the U-198 project, which aims to establish where and when that additional mutation occurred, probably 4 to 5 thousand years ago in Europe, whereas the R1b identifying mutation occurred about 25,000 years ago.

As you can see, the mutation named U-198 occurred thousands of years before the use of surnames – back in the days of tribes and spears.  However, one of the goals of the U-198 project is to find out the surnames of those who test positive for U-198 and where they can be found in modern times and to see what patterns might emerge. For more information about the U-198 project:





“Genealogy Roadshow” will be back on PBS starting May 17, 2016. Participants from Boston, Miami, Houston, Los Angeles and more will be featured.


More news next time!







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